Problem 29 Write the Lewis structure for ea... [FREE SOLUTION] (2024)

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Chapter 5: Problem 29

Write the Lewis structure for each molecule. a. SF2 b. SiH4 c. HCOOH (both O bonded to C) d. CH3SH (C and S central)

Short Answer

Expert verified

a. SF2: Sulfur (S) in center with 2 single bonds to Fluorine (F) atoms and 1 lone pair. b. SiH4: Silicon (Si) in center with 4 single bonds to Hydrogen (H) atoms. c. HCOOH: Carbon (C) in center double-bonded to one Oxygen (O), single-bonded to another Oxygen (O) and to a Hydrogen (H); last Oxygen (O) also double-bonded to Hydrogen (H). d. CH3SH: Carbon (C) in center with 3 Hydrogens (H) and single-bonded to Sulfur (S), which is also single-bonded to a Hydrogen (H); lone pairs on Sulfur (S).

Step by step solution

01

Determining Valence Electrons for SF2

First, find the total number of valence electrons in the molecule SF2. Sulfur (S) has 6 valence electrons, and Fluorine (F) has 7 valence electrons each. Since there are two Fs, the total number of electrons is 6 + 2(7) = 20.

02

Drawing the Lewis Structure for SF2

Place Sulfur (S) in the center because it is less electronegative than Fluorine (F). Draw two single bonds to connect the S atom with each F atom. Distribute the remaining 16 electrons as lone pairs to fulfill the octet rule: each F atom gets 3 lone pairs (6 electrons) and the S atom gets 1 lone pair (2 electrons).

03

Determining Valence Electrons for SiH4

For the molecule SiH4, Silicon (Si) has 4 valence electrons and Hydrogen (H) has 1 valence electron each. Since there are four Hs, the total number of electrons is 4 + 4(1) = 8.

04

Drawing the Lewis Structure for SiH4

Put Silicon (Si) at the center and draw four single bonds to connect it with each Hydrogen (H) atom. No lone pairs are needed since Hydrogen can only form one bond and Silicon's valence shell is complete with these four bonds.

05

Determining Valence Electrons for HCOOH

For the molecule HCOOH (formic acid), the total number of valence electrons is: 1 from Hydrogen (H), 4 from Carbon (C), 6 from Oxygen (O, there are two O) and another 1 from another Hydrogen (H), adding up to 1+4+2(6)+1 = 18 electrons.

06

Drawing the Lewis Structure for HCOOH

Carbon (C) is the central atom, connected to one Oxygen (O) by a double bond (4 electrons) and to other Oxygen (O) by a single bond (2 electrons). The second Oxygen (O) has a double bond with a Hydrogen (H), consuming 2 more electrons. The Carbon (C) is also bonded to a Hydrogen (H). Complete the octets around the O atoms with lone pairs and place any remaining electrons as a lone pair on the C atom.

07

Determining Valence Electrons for CH3SH

For CH3SH, Carbon (C) has 4, Hydrogen (H) has 1 each, and Sulfur (S) has 6 valence electrons. The total number is 4 + 3(1) + 6 + 1 = 14 electrons.

08

Drawing the Lewis Structure for CH3SH

Carbon (C) is the central atom, with three Hydrogens (H) attached, each with a single bond (3 electrons), and is single-bonded to Sulfur (S), consuming 2 more electrons. The Sulfur (S) has a single bond to another Hydrogen (H). The rest of the electrons are distributed as lone pairs on Sulfur (S) to fulfill the octet rule.

Key Concepts

These are the key concepts you need to understand to accurately answer the question.

Valence Electrons

Understanding valence electrons is crucial when forming Lewis structures, as these electrons participate in chemical bonding by making atoms bond with others. Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost shell of an atom that can be gained, lost, or shared during chemical reactions.

For instance, in the molecule SF2, sulfur has 6 valence electrons, while each fluorine has 7. Counting these helps us know how electrons are shared or distributed around atoms to form stable structures. The correct allocation of valence electrons leads to a complete or stable octet structure for most elements, following the octet rule.

Octet Rule

The octet rule is a simple guideline that helps in understanding the bonding arrangement in molecules. According to this rule, atoms tend to bond in such a way that each atom has 8 electrons in its valence shell, resembling the electron configuration of noble gases. This is a driving force behind the formation of chemical bonds.

For molecules like SiH4, the octet rule is fulfilled by sharing electrons between Silicon (4 valence electrons) and Hydrogen atoms (1 valence electron each). This guides us in predicting and drawing stable Lewis structures for a vast number of compounds.

Molecular Geometry

Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule. Understanding the spatial configuration can explain many properties of the compound, such as polarity, reactivity, color, phase of matter, and biological activity. The geometry of a molecule is determined by the Lewis structure and the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory, which accounts for the electron pairs' repulsion around the central atom.

For example, although SF2, SiH4, HCOOH, and CH3SH have varying geometries, their Lewis structures give insight into their shapes. Providing a foundation for understanding these geometries is valuable for predicting interactions and behavior of the molecules.

Chemical Bonding

Chemical bonding is the force that holds atoms together in compounds. This occurs through the transfer or sharing of valence electrons. Bonds can be covalent, where electrons are shared (e.g., HCOOH), or ionic, where electrons are transferred from one atom to another (not exemplified in the given molecules).

In the Lewis structures for the molecules provided, we see examples of single bonds (e.g., S-F in SF2), multiple bonds (e.g., the double bonds in HCOOH), and the exceptional cases where atoms like Hydrogen (e.g., SiH4) follow the 'duet rule' and are stable with only two electrons. Understanding chemical bonding is fundamental for exploring how atoms combine to form substances with new properties.

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Problem 29 Write the Lewis structure for ea... [FREE SOLUTION] (3)

Most popular questions from this chapter

Draw the Lewis structure for acetamide (CH3CONH2), an organic compound, anddetermine the geometry about each interior atom. Experiments show that thegeometry about the nitrogen atom in acetamide is nearly planar. Whichresonance structure can account for the planar geometry about the nitrogen atom?Write the Lewis structure for each ion. Include resonance structures ifnecessary and assign formal charges to all atoms. If necessary, expand theoctet on the central atom to lower formal charge. a. PO4 3- b. CN- c. SO3 2- d. ClO2-Pass a piece of paper around the group and ask each group member in turn toperform the next step in the process of determining a correct Lewis structure(including formal charges on all atoms and resonance structures, ifappropriate) for the following molecules and ions: N2H4, CCl4, CO3 2-, andNH4+.Draft a list of step-by-step instructions for writing the correct Lewisstructure for any molecule or polyatomic ion.Formic acid is partly responsible for the sting of ant bites. By mass, formicacid is 26.10% C, 4.38% H, and 69.52% O. The molar mass of formic acid is46.02 g>mol. Find the molecular formula of formic acid and draw its Lewisstructure.
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Problem 29 Write the Lewis structure for ea... [FREE SOLUTION] (2024)
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